PLANT: Shrubs < 4 m tall. STEMS: ascending, gray-brown, glabrous to densely hairy. LEAVES: evergreen, alternate; petioles 2-6 mm long; blades ovate to round, 2-4 cm long, 1.2 –3 (-4) cm wide, spinescent to spinose-dentate, glabrous or pubescent, concave below, undulate; apex obtuse to rounded. INFLORESCENCE: of 1-10 flowers. FLOWERS: with pedicels 2-4 mm long; petals absent. FRUITS: 4-6 mm, red at maturity. NOTES: Dry slopes, mountain canyons and open hillsides: Coconino, Gila, Graham, Maricopa, Mohave, Pima, Pinal, Yavapai cos.; 646-2000 m (2,120-6,300 ft); Mar-Jun; CA, NV, OR; Mex. REFERENCES: Kyle Christie, Michael Currie, Laura Smith Davis, Mar-Elise Hill, Suzanne Neal, and Tina Ayers, 2006 Vascular Plants of Arizona: Rhamnaceae. CANOTIA 2(1): 23-46.